Royal Geographical Society archive launch, presented by Wiley

Wiley has partnered with The Royal Geographical Society (including IBG) to digitise and conserve the two-million-piece collection spanning over 500 years of travel and exploration, research and thought.

 This session discusses the Wiley relationship with the RGS, the digitisation process and archive content.

 The massive primary source archive offers students and researchers immediate access to the RGS collection, bringing the work of some of the foremost geographers and explorers to life, from the Antarctic discoveries of Scott and Shackleton, to the pioneering work of Livingstone, Stanley, Hunt and Hillary among others.

‘Abundant Futures’: The ethico-political potential of thinking with race: Panel

(Sponsored by the Cultural Geography and Urban Geography Study Groups)

Organisers: Michele Lobo (Deakin) Ashraful Alam (Otago, NZ), Donna Houston (Macquarie), Andrew Burridge (Macquarie)

In an increasingly mobile world cities are sites of difference, encounter and struggle – humans/nonhumans, nature/culture and the dominant/subaltern. Often the imperialist force of race, white politics and racial capitalism exacerbates the struggle while entangled with popular as well as state anxieties about indigenous recognition, immigration, asylum seeker-refugee policies, Islam and national security. Drawing on more-than-human perspectives this session asks: what are the possibilities for inhabiting our planetary home in ways that move beyond (eco-)apocalyptic futures? We welcome papers that seek ethico-political spaces of abundance in the Anthropocene through engagements with diverse traditions of thought from the Global North/South.

Introduction:

Michele Lobo (Deakin University) with Donna Houston (Macquarie University)

 

Order of Speakers:

Naama Blatman-Thomas (University of Sydney)

(Land eugenics and its aftermath: How Palestinians challenge the race of the land in Jewish cities)

 

Marilu Mero-Zurita (University of New South Wales)

The Burden of Abundant Futures: discarded bodies in the Subterranean Anthropocene

 

June Rubis (Oxford University)

The Orang Utan is Not an Indigenous Name: Knowing and Naming the Orang Utan as a Decolonizing Epistemology

 

Yvonne Underhill-Sem (Auckland University)

Where are the ethico-political possibilities for vendor-led marketplace associations in the diverse, racialized and gendered Pacific?

 

Rhonda Itaoui (Western Sydney University)

Race and Islam

 

Maeve Powell (Australian National University)

Decolonising the Anthropocene and Science Fiction

 

Discussion: Andrew Burridge (Macquarie University) with Michele Lobo (Deakin University)

A generalized framework for the detection of range shifts from “resurvey” studies

Morgan W. Tingley 1
1 Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Connecticut, 75 N. Eagleville Rd Unit 3043, Storrs CT 06103 USA,

morgan.tingley@uconn.edu, @mwtingley

Long-­‐term, large-­‐scale environmental change necessitates empirical studies that span time frames from decades to centuries. As this length of time often precludes planned experiments, an increasingly popular option in ecology is the “resurvey” study, or the revisitation of past research sites. An important emerging issue is how researchers can use past survey data to make analytically robust comparisons. Previous work has largely acknowledged this problem while employing a diverse set of strategies, statistical or otherwise, to account for bias. While no single analytical framework will satisfy the needs of all researchers, the increasing popularity of resurvey studies demands a generalized accounting of inferential problems as well as common strategies for overcoming them. This presentation outlines how statistical methods can be used to account for bias derived from issues such as imperfect detection, shifting taxonomies, unknown or changing spatial sampling, differing survey methodologies, and varying levels of survey effort. Among various methodological options, emphasis will be placed on the flexible nature of state-­‐space models to allow the inclusion, characterization, and estimation of multiple sources of uncertainty deriving from both state and observation processes. While such analytical tools show great potential in resurvey studies, their prospective success relies on the standards by which both past data and new data are collected. Thus, whether we are resurveying the past or setting baselines for the future, changing how we survey – in addition to changing how we analyze data – will play a key role in the future measurement and documentation of species on the move.

Twitter: @mwtingley

The responsiveness and adaptability of Commonwealth fisheries management to climate change

Danait Ghebrezgabhier(1) and Giulia Porro (2)
(1)Australian Fisheries Management Authority (AFMA), PO Box 7051, ACT 2610, Danait.Ghebrezgabhier@afma.gov.au, @azmarinae
(2) Australian Fisheries Management Authority (AFMA), PO Box 7051, ACT 2610, Giulia.Porro@afma.gov.au, @loveateverybite

This presentation explores whether tools utilised to manage Commonwealth fisheries allow for adaptive management and sustainable exploitation of fisheries resources in response to climate change.The various management tools used by AFMA have the potential to take into account environmentalfactors that may influence the size and/or distribution of commercial fish stocks. These include management via output controls, temporal and spatial management measures and data collection and monitoring programs.

Whilst the current management system works well, AFMA acknowledges that it has limits and is participating in research to:

  • increase its awareness of the true impact of fisheries on the environment relative to other industries and externalities,
  • identify the environmental variables that drive the distribution of commercial fish stocks and the potential to use predictive tools to monitor their impact over time.

Our presentation will also provide an overview of how:

  • The quota system and the setting of total allowable catches allow for adaptive management and encourage sustainable fishing.
  • The relatively large geographical boundaries of the fisheries that AFMA manages provide industry with the flexibility and space to follow key commercial species.
  • AFMA has data collection programs that could be used or adapted to explore changes in the pattern of fish stock composition and distribution over time.
  • Current and future research investments will allow for the development of predictive tools that will anticipate significant environmental changes and help AFMA develop adaptive fisheries
    management options for a range of environmental scenarios.
  • To determine the weight of evidence/test required to implement adaptive management.

Australian National Adaptation Research Plan for Terrestrial Biodiversity feedback session

Prof Stephen Williams

The primary aim of the National Adaptation Research Plan for Terrestrial Biodiversity (NARP-TB) is to identify the research required to assist managers and policy makers of Australia’s terrestrial biodiversity systems to prepare for, and adapt to, climate change. The plan identifies knowledge gaps with respect to helping terrestrial systems adapt to climate change, and develops priority research questions (PRQ’s) to enable researchers to focus their efforts on filling these gaps. These priority research questions are aimed at providing the knowledge to inform decisions on climate change adaptation management in terrestrial systems. This short discussion session will focus on the presentation of the PRQ’s and invite comment and feedback on the draft priority research questions.

Bioclimatic scaling: a middle-ground approach to assessing and addressing potential impacts of climate change on the distribution of biodiversity

Simon Ferrier (1), Thomas D Harwood (1), Kristen J Williams (1), Andrew Hoskins (1), Karel Mokany (1), Alex Bush (1), Chris Ware (1), Glenn Manion (2)

1   CSIRO Land and Water, PO Box 1600, ACT 2601, Australia

2   NSW Office of Environment and Heritage, University of New England 2351, Australia

Two broad analytical approaches have dominated efforts to assess potential impacts of climate change on the spatial distribution of biodiversity, and to thereby inform policy formulation, planning and management aimed at addressing these impacts. The first, and most widely applied, approach focuses on modelling shifts in the distribution of particular biological entities – mostly individual species, but also higher-level aggregations such as species assemblages or functional groups. The second approach focuses instead on analysing spatiotemporal patterns in climate alone – e.g. projections of climatic stability, velocity of climate change, and novel and disappearing climates, along with consideration of such patterns in adaptation strategies aimed at “conserving nature’s stage”. An arguable strength of this approach is its utility for addressing regions and/or components of biodiversity where the data and understanding required to explicitly model biological responses are lacking. However, analyses of climate alone do not recognise that the level of biological change expected to be associated with a given amount of change in a climatic attribute can vary markedly between biological groups, environments, and biogeographic regions. We here describe how these sources of variation can be accommodated by combining best-available location records for large numbers of species, with statistical modelling of spatial turnover in species composition, to scale (transform) multidimensional climate space, such that distances within this transformed space correlate as closely as possible with observed levels of biological turnover. We then use recent analyses underpinned by this approach to demonstrate how it can serve as a third major option for assessing and addressing climate-change impacts on biodiversity, effectively occupying the middle ground between explicit modelling of shifts in biological distributions, and analyses based on spatiotemporal patterns in climate alone.

Alaska’s coastline and resources: tracking and response through networks, pilots and satellites

Torie Baker 1, Paula Cullenberg 2

1 Alaska Sea Grant Marine Advisory Program University of Alaska Fairbanks, Box 814, Cordova, Alaska, 99574, torie.baker@alaska.edu, @toriealaska1

2 Alaska Sea Grant University of Alaska Fairbanks, 1007 West Third, Suite 100, Anchorage, Alaska 99501, paula.cullenberg@alaska.edu , @pcullenberg

With over 40,000 miles of coastline, three out of four Alaskans, in nearly 260 communities, live either along the state’s coastline or along the rivers that bridge freshwater and marine coastal environments. This presentation highlights three representative remote, human-based observation and response programs active in coastal Alaska: NOAA’s Alaska Marine Mammal Stranding Network, invasive species monitoring arrangements, and the LEO Network for Native and rural Alaskans tracking climate and species anomalies. Alaska Sea Grant recently published a state-wide manual outlining successful strategies for community based monitoring in Alaska .As a leading international seafood producing region with over 8,000 registered commercial fishing vessels, plans for utilizing Alaska’s fishing fleets in monitoring and reporting fish species distribution, harmful alga blooms and climatic anomalies is being explored. The University of Alaska Fairbanks Alaska Sea Grant Program personnel actively contribute to network data collection across several topics, and is a leading partner in sharing of best practices for establishing successful monitoring programs throughout Alaska.

Climatic variability promotes asymmetric competition and exclusion in ectotherms

Shih-fan Chan

Climate change is known to modify both climatic mean and variability. Environmental
variability  has  long  been  considered  an  important  regulator  of  species  interactions,
particularly  interspecific  competition.  However,  although  increasing  studies  have
focused  on  the  biological  impacts  of  changing  climatic  mean  and  variability,  their
interacting  effects  on  species  interaction,  and  hence  species’  distribution,  were  less
explored.  Here,  we  investigate  how  changing  thermal  variation  and  mean  influence
the  competition  and  coexistence  between  burying  beetles,  Nicrophorus  nepalensis,
and  blowflies  along  a  large  elevational  gradient  in  central  Tai wan.   Our  field  study
shows that  habitat alteration increased daily temperature range (DTR)—a short‐term
thermal  variation—and  the  effect  was  more  pronounced  in  higher  elevation.  This
higher  DTR  negatively  impacted  the  breeding  success  of  N.  nepalensis  through
altering  the  competitive  interaction  between  N.  nepalensis  and  blowflies,  which,  in
turn, promoted the competitive exclusion of N. nepalensis. We further integrated the
thermal  performance  curve  and  Lotka‐Volterra  model  to  explore  the  general
relationship  between  climatic  mean  and  variability  on  the  competitive  relationship
between  species.  Results  from  the  model  showed  that  temperature  variability  can
cause both  coexistence and competitive exclusion depending on its interacting effect
with mean temperature. Our lab experiment on the competitive interaction between
N. nepalensis and blowflies further supported these model predictions. Together, our
study  provides  a  general  theoretical  framework  predicting  how  competitive
interaction  changes  with  temperature  mean  and  variability,  which  could  be
particularly  useful  for  predicting  the  changes  of  biotic  interactions  under  climate
change.

Community assembly along the eastern Australian biogeographic transition zone:  high latitude reef communities as novel ecosystems 

John M Pandolfi 1, Brigitte Sommer 2, Maria Beger 3, Eugenia M. Sampayo 4, Sun Wook Kim
1 Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies, School of Biological Sciences, The University of
Queensland, Brisbane QLD 4072 Australia, j.pandolfi@uq.edu.au, @JohnPandolfi
2 Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies, School of Biological Sciences, The University of
Queensland, Brisbane QLD 4072 Australia, brigitte.sommer@optusnet.com.au
3 Centre for Biodiversity and Conservation Science, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD 4072, m.beger@uq.edu.au,
@mariabeger
4 Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies, School of Biological Sciences, The University of
Queensland, Brisbane QLD 4072 Australia, e.sampayo@uq.edu.au,
5 Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies, School of Biological Sciences, The University of
Queensland, Brisbane QLD 4072 Australia, sun.w.kim@uq.edu.au,

The  capability  of  species  to  move  across  biogeographic  transition  zones  depends  on  the  magnitude  and
rate  of  environmental  change,  species  traits  and  life  histories,  dispersal  limitation,  evolutionary  response,
and  biotic  interactions.    The  combination of  these  factors  will  undoubtedly  shape  the  communities  of  the
future,  many  of  which  are  predicted  to  be  novel.    We  take  an ecosystem  level  approach  in  examining  the
potential mechanisms driving new species combinations across numerous taxa along the eastern Australian
coastline.    Macroalgae,  coralline  algae,  hard  and  soft  corals,  sea  urchins  and  other  invertebrates,  and
benthic  fish  assemblages  exhibit  contrasting  patterns  of  abundance  and  diversity  along  the  latitudinal
gradient.    Hard  and  soft  coral  abundance  decreases  whereas  encrusting  coralline  algae  abundance
increases  with  latitude.  Macroalgae abundance remains  relatively  constant,  resulting  in  an  overall  inverse
relationship  with  coral  abundance.  Sea  urchin  and  encrusting  coralline  algal  abundance  increases  with
latitude, whereas herbivorous fish show a bell‐shaped curve with a dip in fish herbivory in the middle range
latitudes.  Since macroalgae decrease with urchin abundance, sea urchin herbivory may be a stronger driver
of community structure on high latitude reefs than fish herbivory, which may be more sensitive to declining
coral cover.  Herbivores may indirectly facilitate higher abundance of corals, by reducing competition from
macroalgae  and  by  fostering  encrusting  coralline  algae  where  rugosity  is  sufficiently  developed.  Our
ecosystem  level  approach  contributes  to  improved  understanding  of  the  potential  impacts  of  anticipated
climate  change  on  marine  communities  along  latitudinal  gradients  and  the  processes  driving  community
assembly at the margins of biogeographic transition zones.

Twitter: @JohnPandolfi

5

Temperature tracking by North Sea benthic invertebrates in response to climate change

JG Hiddink 1, MT Burrows 2, J Garcia Molinos 3
1 School of Ocean Sciences, Bangor University, Menai Bridge, Anglesey, LL59 5AB, UK, J.Hiddink@bangor.ac.uk, @Macomabalthica
2 Scottish Association for Marine Science, Scottish Marine Institute Oban, Argyll PA37 1QA, UK
3 Scottish Association for Marine Science, Scottish Marine Institute Oban, Argyll PA37 1QA, UK
The extent to which shifts in the distribution of species keep pace with a changing climate is uncertain. In
particular, little information exists for soft-sediment invertebrates. We evaluate changes in the distribution
of 65 benthic invertebrate species over 14 years by combining information on their geographic,
bathymetric and thermal niche shifts and tests whether species are tracking their thermal niche as defined
by minimum, mean or maximum bottom (SBT) and surface (SST) temperatures. Temperatures increased in
the whole North Sea over the study period, with many benthic invertebrates showing north-westerly range
shifts and deepening. Nevertheless, distribution shifts for most species lagged behind shifts in both bottom
and surface temperatures, resulting in a large proportion of species experiencing higher temperatures in
2000 than in 1986. The velocity of climate change (VoCC) of mean SST accurately predicted both the
direction and the magnitude of distribution centroid shifts, while maximum SST did the same for
contraction of the trailing edge. The VoCC of SBT was not a good predictor of range shifts as it only
accurately predicted the direction but not the magnitude of centroid shifts. Our results show that marine
invertebrates need to shift at different rates and in different directions to track the climate velocities of
different temperature measures, and are therefore lagging behind most temperature measures. If these
species cannot withstand a change in thermal habitat, this could ultimately lead to a drop in benthic
biodiversity over longer time scales under rapid climate change.

Twitter: @Macomabalthica

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